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Posts for: May, 2018

By contactus@priority-pediatrics.com
May 27, 2018
Category: Healthy Kids

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

 

From the Academy of Pediatrics:

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), also called e-cigarettes, personal vaporizers, vape pens, e-cigars, e-hookah, or vaping devices, are products that produce an aerosolized mixture containing flavored liquids and nicotine that is inhaled by the user. ENDS can resemble traditional tobacco products like cigarettes, cigars, pipes, or common gadgets like flashlights, flash drives, or pens.

These products have grown rapidly, particularly among youth and young adults. Youth use of ENDS products​​​ is a significant public health concern.

 

Quick Facts about ENDS

  • ENDS are the most commonly-used tobacco products among youth. In 2016, 11% of high schoolers and 4% of middle schoolers reported using e-cigarettes in the last 30 days.1
     
  • Youth who use ENDS products are more likely to use cigarettes or other tobacco products.​2,6
     
  • ENDS contain a liquid solution that is usually flavored. Flavors, which are appealing to children, can include fruit flavors, candy, coffee, piña colada, peppermint, bubble gum, or chocolate. You can read more about the ways the Tobacco Industry uses flavors to lure kids into using tobacco products in “The Flavor Trap​,” a report issued by AAP and four partner organizations.

  • ENDS solution has chemicals (ie, anti-freeze, diethylene glycol, and carcinogens like nitrosamines).3​​

  • ENDS devices mimic conventional cigarette use and help re-normalize smoking behaviors.

  • ENDS are not approved for smoking cessation, and the long-term health effects to users and bystanders are st​ill unknown. The chemical compounds in an ENDS device can vary between brands.3

  • E-liquid from ENDS devices and refill packs can contaminate skin, leading to nicotine poisoning. Symptoms of nicotine poisoning include vomiting, sweating, dizziness, increased heart rate, lethargy, seizures, and difficulty breathing.3

  • In 2014, poison centers in the US reported 3,783 exposures to e-cigarette devices and nicotine liquid, compared to only 1,543 exposures in 2013. In 2015, 3,073 exposures were reported.4

  • Some states have enacted legislation to require child-resistant packaging for ENDS devices and liquids, and a bill to do this at the national level was signed into law by President Obama in early 2016.

  • ENDS users should always keep e-cigarettes and liquid nicotine locked up and out of the reach of children and follow the specific disposal instructions on the label.5

  • In 2016, US Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, MD MBA released a report, "E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General." The report concluded that youth should not use e-cigarettes due to the health effects on users and on others exposed to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol.6​

AAP Resources about ENDS

Sources

1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2011–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2017;66(23):597-603. Accessed July 28, 2017

2) Dutra LM, Glantz SA. Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional study. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(7):610–617pmid:24604023​

3) American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Tobacco Control. Policy statement: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems. Pediatrics. 2015; 136(5):1018—1026.

4) American Association of Poison Control Centers. January 31, 2016. Electronic Cigarettes and Liquid Nicotine Data. Accessed February 10, 2016.

5) American Association of Poison Control Centers. E-Cigarette Devices and Liquid Nicotine. Accessed October 16, 2015.

6) US Department of Health and Human Services (2016). E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health


By contactus@priority-pediatrics.com
May 26, 2018
Category: Uncategorized

 

Researchers Quantify How Long It Takes For Cars To Reach Killer Temperatures.

 

TODAY (5/24) reports that researchers have quantified “how long it takes for cars to reach killer temperatures in either the sun or the shade.” Testing six cars of various sizes and makes, researchers found that “left in the sun on a 100-degree day in Arizona, it took just an hour for the interior temperature to hit 116 degrees.” In the shade, “interior temperatures reached 100 degrees after one hour and seats were 105 degrees.” The article points out that heatstroke becomes damaging “when a child’s body temperature rises above 104 degrees.”

 

        HealthDay (5/24) reports that researchers next “modeled how a two-year-old child might fare in such conditions.” The investigators found that just “one hour in a sunny spot or two hours in a shaded vehicle could cause heat injury or even death.” The findings were published online in the journal Temperature.

 

        The Tennessean (5/24) reports that the American Academy of Pediatrics has some recommendations “to minimize child deaths in hot cars,” including never leaving a “small child alone in a car under any circumstances,” not even for a moment, and not even when the car’s air conditioning is running.

 

        FURTHER READING

        Prevent Child Deaths in Hot Cars


By contactus@priority-pediatrics.com
May 26, 2018
Category: Safety
Tags: safety   Poisoning   button battery   ingestion   death  

From the Academy of Pediatrics

Button batteries can cause injuries, death if swallowed

Trisha KoriothStaff Writer
 
  • Parent Plus
 

When you need to change a button battery, hunting down a screwdriver to open the tiny lid that covers the battery may seem like a nuisance. But the American Academy of Pediatrics urges parents to make sure the lid is closed tightly to keep the batteries out of children’s reach.

Children can suffer serious injuries or die if they swallow button batteries. Injuries are most common in children under 5 years old.

Children can suffer serious injuries or die if they swallow button batteries. Photo courtesy of Robert E. Kramer, M.D.
Children can suffer serious injuries or die if they swallow button batteries. Photo courtesy of Robert E. Kramer, M.D.

The batteries are used in toys, remote controls, thermometers, hearing aids, calculators, bathroom scales, key fobs, cameras and holiday ornaments.

Lithium batteries the size of a penny or larger are the most dangerous, and even dead batteries are harmful when swallowed. Smaller batteries also can get caught in the esophagus, or children can put them in their ears or nose.

If you think your child may have swallowed a button battery, go to the emergency room right away. Batteries can cause serious burns within two hours of being swallowed, so they need to be removed as soon as possible. Children also have died after batteries were removed because of tissue damage that caused massive internal bleeding.

A child who swallows a button battery may have the following symptoms: blocked airway, wheezing, drooling, vomiting, chest pain, trouble swallowing, no appetite or coughing and gagging when eating.

Children who put batteries in their ear may have drainage from the ear, pain, hearing loss or facial paralysis. If a battery is put into a nostril, it can cause nasal tissue injury, infection and damage or holes in the cartilage that separates the nostrils.

To keep children safe from button battery injuries:

  • Use screws provided and tape to keep battery compartments sealed shut.
  • Keep loose batteries out of children’s reach. Never place batteries in cups or near pill bottles.
  • Check with your garbage company or local authorities to find out how to recycle batteries. Authorities advise placing tape on both sides of the dead battery and storing it in a zip bag out of children’s reach.

 


By contactus@priority-pediatrics.com
May 26, 2018
Category: Safety
Tags: safety   Zip lines   injury   backyard  
 
From the Academy of Pediatrics

Look before you leap: Follow these zip line safety tips

Trisha KoriothStaff Writer
 
  • Parent Plus
 

Before you harness your child into a zip line at camp or during a family vacation, you might want to ask the operator a few questions about the ride’s safety.

A common attraction at camps, amusement parks and in backyards, zip lines are popular across the U.S. But not every company follows the same safety rules.

Nearly 17,000 zip line injuries were treated in emergency rooms from 1997-2012, and most of those injuries were in the last four years, according to a 2015 study by Gary A. Smith, M.D., Dr.P.H., FAAP, and colleagues at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. About half the injuries involved children under 10 years old. Another 33% involved children ages 10-19 years. The study noted that many zip lines are not regulated, and there are no uniform safety standards.

The increase in the number of zip line injuries in children is “an epidemic by any definition,” according to Dr. Smith, past chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Council on Injury, Violence and Poison Prevention.

“If kids are using them, you really need to make sure they’re using them in places where people are trained, they know what they’re doing and the zip lines have been constructed in a way that they’re not going to fail,” said Dr. Smith.

Backyard zip line kits sold online and in stores also have been linked to injuries. Earlier this year, the Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled a backyard zip line kit (http://1.usa.gov/1XoHrFs) because of a design flaw that made it easy for the cable to separate from the line, causing riders to fall. Riders suffered head injuries and bruises. Another recall was issued in 2014 for backyard zip line trolleys (http://1.usa.gov/1RT6uaY) that released unexpectedly. No injuries were reported. Authors of the 2015 study warned against buying and installing backyard zip lines.

The AAP does not have a policy on zip lines and children. However, Dr. Smith suggested the following safety precautions:

  • requiring riders to wear a helmet, harness and gloves;
  • training operators;
  • inspecting and maintaining equipment regularly; and
  • posting rules and requiring participants to follow them.

“If done correctly, these and other types of outdoor amusements that are there for the thrill … can be done in a safe enough way that it’s reasonable for children to use them,” Dr. Smith said.


By contactus@priority-pediatrics.com
May 26, 2018
Tags: repellents   Lyme   tick   tick bite   insects   removal  
 
November 13, 2017 from the American Academy of Pediatrics

Know myths, facts about Lyme disease

Trisha KoriothStaff Writer
 
  • Parent Plus
 

When parents hear the word “tick,” another four-letter word often pops into their head: Lyme.

If you’ve already typed those eight letters into an internet search bar, beware. Next to child health information, you might see false reports about “chronic Lyme disease” from tick bites.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers the following truths about ticks.

“Chronic Lyme disease” is not a medical diagnosis. Some patients and even a few doctors think that “chronic Lyme” is the cause for lasting problems with pain and fatigue. But many health problems can cause pain and fatigue, according to Eugene D. Shapiro, M.D., FAAP, a Lyme disease expert.

If a tick bites your child (or you), you probably don’t need to take a Lyme disease lab test. To diagnose Lyme disease, you and your child’s pediatrician should look for signs of a circular rash at the bite area that grows to more than 5 centimeters wide. These rashes sometimes look like a bullseye, though most often they are red throughout, and usually appear seven to 14 days after the bite. Other signs of Lyme disease are facial palsy muscle paralysis on one side of the face or joint swelling. “Antibiotic treatment is very effective. Complications are rare. An untreated rash will last for weeks,” Dr. Shapiro said.

A small number of children have pain, fatigue, and joint and muscle aches after they are treated for Lyme disease. This is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. More antibiotics are not the answer, the AAP says. Sometimes, it takes months for such symptoms to go away.

Lyme test results are sometimes misinterpreted. The AAP does not recommend lab tests or antibiotics if the child’s only symptoms are fatigue or joint pain, or if no tick was found.

The AAP does not recommend testing ticks for Lyme disease. But if you bring the tick to the pediatrician in a plastic sandwich bag, she may be able to see if it is the type that carries Lyme disease. Follow these instructions to remove the tick, http://bit.ly/2wtGTDI

Not all ticks spread Lyme disease. Two types that do are the blacklegged tick (deer tick) and the western blacklegged tick.

Ticks that spread Lyme disease live in certain areas of the U.S. Most cases are in New England, the eastern Mid-Atlantic states and the upper Midwest. Lyme disease spreads between spring and fall. Other parts of the U.S. have ticks that carry different diseases. Find information at http://bit.ly/2fOhyxp